Early warning

The system that are traditionally considered part of strategic defense -- missile defense, the early-warning system, space surveillance and anti-satellite systems -- are currently included in the Air and Space Defense Forces, a separate branch of Russia's Armed Forces, subordinated directly to the General Staff.

Early-warning system

Early-warning satellites

As of November 2013, the space component of the Russian early-warning system included three operational satellites deployed on highly-elliptical orbits (HEO) and one geostationary satellite.

Satellites on the highly-elliptical orbit--Cosmos-2422 (HEO, launched 21 July 2006, NORAD catalog number 29260) and Cosmos-2446 (HEO, 2 December 2008, 33447) -- are first-generation satellites of the 73D6 type that were built for the US-KS system (also known as Oko). This system was designed to detect launches of ballistic missiles from the U.S. territory and cannot detect missiles launched from sea or other regions.

The geostationary satellite, Cosmos-2479 (GEO, 30 March 2012, 38101), has been positioned at the point 166 degrees East. It is believed to be a 71Kh6 type satellite of the US-KMO system.

The early-warning satellites transmit information in real time to the Western command centers at Serpukhov-15 (near Kurilovo, Kaluga oblast) and Eastern center near Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The information is processed there and transmitted to the command center in Solnechnogorsk.

Radars

As of November 2013, the land-based component of the early-warning system included the following radars:

Radar station
Radars
Status
Olenegorsk (RO-1)
Dnepr/Daugava


Voronezh-VP
planned (2017)
Pechora (RO-30)
Daryal

Vorkuta
Voronezh-VP
under construction
Mishelevka (OS-1)
Dnepr

2xVoronezh-VP
initial operations
Lekhtusi
Voronezh-M

Armavir 2xVoronezh-DM
Kaliningrad Voronezh-DM initial operations
Barnaul
Voronezh-DM
under construction
Orsk Voronezh-M under construction
Balkhash, Kazakhstan (OS-2)
Dnepr

Baranovichi, Belarus Volga

In addition to the dedicated early-warning radars, the Don-2N radar of the Moscow missile defense system and the Dunay-3U radar near Chekhov are also used for early-warning and space surveillance.

You could download a Google Earth file with radar locations and fans.

Missile defense

The Moscow missile defense system A-135 is operated by a missile defense division. The main command center of the system and the battle-management radar are located in Sofrino (Moscow oblast). The command center of the system and its radar are undergoing a software upgrade.

The system includes the Don-2N battle-management phased-array radar, command center, and 68 short-range interceptors of the 53T6 (Gazelle) type. The 32 long-range 51T6 (Gorgon) interceptors have been removed from the system. The short-range interceptors are deployed at five sites -- Lytkarino (16 interceptors), Sofrino (12), Korolev (12) Skhodnya (16), and Vnukovo (12). Long-range missiles used to be deployed with two units with headquarters in Naro-Fominsk-10 and Sergiyev Posad-15. The system was accepted for service in 1995.

Space surveillance

Space surveillance system is operated by the Main space-surveillance command center. To monitor objects on low earth orbits and determines parameters of their orbits, the system uses the the early-warning radar network.

The space surveillance network also includes the Krona system at Zelenchukskaya in the North Caucasus, which includes dedicated X-band space surveillance radars. Another system of this type is being deployed near Nakhodka on the Far East.

To monitor objects on high-altitude orbits, the space-surveillance system uses optical observations. The main optical observation station, Okno, is located in Nurek, Tajikistan. Its telescopes allow detection of object at altitudes of up to 40,000 km. The station began operations in 1999. Space-surveillance tasks are also assigned to observatories of the Russian Academy of Sciences.