Strategic fleet

Strategic naval forces are an integral part of the Russian Navy, which is a separate service of the Russia's Armed Forces. The current Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, Admiral Nikolay Yevmenov, was appointed to this post on 3 May 2019.

As of early 2020, the Navy included 10 strategic submarines of three different types, of which 9 had missiles on board. The operational submarines can carry 144 sea-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) that can carry up to 656 nuclear warheads. The actual number of deployed warheads is most likely smaller as otherwise Russia would have exceeded the New START limit on the total number of deployed warheads.

Number of submarines


Strategic submarines
Number of SLBMs and their type
Total warheads (maximum)
Project 667BDR (Delta III)

16 R-29R (SS-N-18)
Project 667BDRM (Delta IV)
80 R-29RM (SS-N-23)
Project 941 (Typhoon)
Project 955

48 R-30 Bulava
up to 656
[1] One submarine is in overhaul. Its missiles are not accounted for in the total.
[2] One submarine of the Project 941 class has been refitted as a test bed for the Bulava missile system. It is not counted in the total number of operational submarines.

Submarine bases

The Russian Navy includes four fleets -- the Northern Fleet, the Pacific Fleet, the Baltic Fleet, and the Black Sea Fleet. Strategic submarines are deployed with the Northern Fleet and the Pacific Fleet.

Northern Fleet

Northern Fleet headquarters is located in Severomorsk (Murmansk oblast). The fleet includes a unified command of strategic submarines.

The submarine units based in Gadzhiyevo (Yagelnaya Bay, Sayda Inlet) include five active Project 667BDRM (Delta IV) submarines - K-114 Tula, K-407 Novomoskovsk, K-18 Karelia, K-114 Tula, and K-51 Verkhoturie, and K-84 Ekaterinburg. One Project 667BDRM submarine - K-117 Bryansk - is currently undergoing overhaul. The lead submarine of the Project 955 class, Yuri Dolgorukiy, is also based in Gadzhiyevo.

Pacific Fleet

Pacific Fleet headquarters is located in Vladivostok. Strategic submarines of the Pacific Fleet are included into the 16th Squadron, based in Vilyuchinsk (Rybachiy, Krasheninnikov Bay, Kamchatka Peninsula). The squadron includes one Project 667BDR submarine - K-44 Ryazan. The first Project 955 submarine - Alexander Nevskiy - arrived in Vilyuchinsk on September 30, 2015. The second, Vladimir Monomakh--in September 2016.

Strategic submarines

All currently deployed strategic submarines were developed at the Rubin Central Design Bureau of Naval Equipment (St-Petersburg). All currently deployed strategic submarines were built at the Northern Machine-Building Production Association (Severodvinsk, Archangelsk oblast).

Submarines of the Project 667BDR (Delta III) class entered service in 1976-1982. The total of 14 ships of this class were built. These submarines carry the D-16R missile system with 16 R-29R (SS-N-18) missiles. Submarines of this class are being withdrawn from service.

Submarines of the Project 667BDRM (Delta IV) class entered service in 1985-1991. The total of 7 ships of this class were built, of which one (K-64 Vladimir) has been converted into a special-forces submarine. Submarines of this class carry the D-16RM missile system with 16 R-29RM (SS-N-23) missiles. The current plans call for keeping six 667BDRM submarines in service, so the submarines are undergoing overhaul during which they are equipped with new missiles.

Project 941 (Typhoon) submarines were deployed in 1981-1989. The total of six submarines of this class were built. Submarines of this class carry the D-19 missile system with 20 R-39 (SS-N-20) missiles. Since the missiles have reached end of their service lives, Project 941 submarines have been withdrawn from service. The only exception is the lead ship of the class, TK-208 Dmitry Donskoy, which has been refitted for tests of a new missile system, R-30 Bulava.

In 1996 Russia began construction of a strategic submarine of a new class, Project 955 (also known as Borey or Yuri Dolgorukiy).  Submarines of this class will carry 16 Bulava launchers. The lead ship, Yuri Dolgorukiy, joined the Northern Fleet in December 2013 and received its full complement of missiles in 2014. Subsequent Project 955 submarines are expected to join the Pacific Fleet. As of January 2016, three submarines had been accepted for service - Yuri Dolgorukiy, Alexander Nevskiy, and Vladimir Monomakh. Four more submarines are under construction - Knyaz Vladimir (laid down in July 2012, expected to enter service in 2020), Knyaz Oleg (July 2014), Generalissimus Suvorov (December 2014), and "Imperator Alexander III (December 2015).

Sea-launched ballistic missiles

All currently deployed sea-launched ballistic missiles were developed at the Machine-Building Design Bureau (Miass, Chelyabinsk oblast). The design bureau is currently named the V. P. Makeyev State Missile Center.

R-29R (SS-N-18) missiles are deployed on Project 667BDR submarines. The system was accepted for service in 1979. The missile has two liquid-fuel stages and carries three warheads. The missiles were produced at the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant.

R-29RM (SS-N-23) missiles are deployed on Project 667BDRM submarines. The system was accepted for service in 1986. The missile has three liquid-fuel stages (the third stage also works as a bus) and carries four warheads. In 1999 Russia resumed production of these missiles, in a modification known as Sineva, to be deployed on Project 667BDRM submarines during overhaul. Launch tests of the Sineva missile were completed in June 2004 and it was accepted for service in July 2007. Another modification of R-29RM, known as Liner, could carry up to 10 warheads.

Russia is currently developing a new sea-launched ballistic missile, known as R-30 Bulava. Development of this missile is done at the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology. Flight tests of the missile began in September 2005. The new missile system will  be deployed on Project 955 submarines. Bulava was declared as carrying six warheads.