Strategic fleet

Strategic naval forces are an integral part of the Russian Navy, which is a separate service of the Russia's Armed Forces. The current Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, Vice Admiral Viktor Chirkov, was appointed to this post on 6 May 2012.

As of January 2015, the Navy included 11 strategic submarines of three different types, of which 8 had missiles on board. The operational submarines carried 128 sea-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with 512 nuclear warheads.

Number of submarines

Warheads

Strategic submarines
Number of SLBMs and their type
Total warheads
Project 667BDR (Delta III)
2
32 R-29R (SS-N-18)
 
3
96
Project 667BDRM (Delta IV)
6
[1]
80 R-29RM (SS-N-23)
4
320
Project 941 (Typhoon)
1
[2]
-
 
-
Project 955
3
[3]
16 R-30 Bulava
 
6
96
Total
11
128
512
[1] One submarine is in overhaul. Its missiles are not accounted for in the total.
[2] One submarine of the Project 941 type has been refitted as a test bed for the Bulava missile system. It is not counted in the total number of operational submarines.
[3] As of January 2015, only one submarine had a full complement of missiles on board.

Submarine bases

The Russian Navy includes four fleets -- the Northern Fleet, the Pacific Fleet, the Baltic Fleet, and the Black Sea Fleet. Strategic submarines are deployed with the Northern Fleet and the Pacific Fleet.

Northern Fleet

Northern Fleet headquarters is located in Severomorsk (Murmansk oblast). The fleet includes a unified command of strategic submarines.

The submarine units based in Gadzhiyevo (Yagelnaya Bay, Sayda Inlet) include five active Project 667BDRM (Delta IV) submarines - K-114 Tula, K-407 Novomoskovsk, K-18 Karelia, K-117 Bryansk, and K-51 Verkhoturie, and K-84 Ekaterinburg. One Project 667BDRM submarine - K-114 Tula - is currently undergoing overhaul. The lead submarine of the Project 955 class, Yuri Dolgorukiy, is also based in Gadzhiyevo.

Pacific Fleet

Pacific Fleet headquarters is located in Vladivostok. Strategic submarines of the Pacific Fleet are included into the 16th Squadron, based in Vilyuchinsk (Rybachiy, Krasheninnikov Bay, Kamchatka Peninsula). The squadron includes two Project 667BDR submarines - K-223 Podolsk and K-433 Sv. Georgiy Pobedonosets. K-44 Ryazan, which was transferred to Vilyuchinsk from the Northern Fleet, has been moved to the Zvezda plant in 2012 and is likely to be decommissioned. Two Project 955 submarines - Alexander Nevskiy and Vladimir Monomakh - are expected to arrive in Vilyuchinsk in 2015.

Strategic submarines

All currently deployed strategic submarines were developed at the Rubin Central Design Bureau of Naval Equipment (St-Petersburg). All currently deployed strategic submarines were built at the Northern Machine-Building Production Association (Severodvinsk, Archangelsk oblast).

Submarines of the Project 667BDR (Delta III) class entered service in 1976-1982. The total of 14 ships of this class were built. These submarines carry the D-16R missile system with 16 R-29R (SS-N-18) missiles. Submarines of this class are being withdrawn from service.

Submarines of the Project 667BDRM (Delta IV) class entered service in 1985-1991. The total of 7 ships of this class were built, of which one (K-64 Vladimir) has been converted into a special-forces submarine. Submarines of this class carry the D-16RM missile system with 16 R-29RM (SS-N-23) missiles. The current plans call for keeping six 667BDRM submarines in service, so the submarines are undergoing overhaul during which they are equipped with new missiles.

Project 941 (Typhoon) submarines were deployed in 1981-1989. The total of six submarines of this class were built. Submarines of this class carry the D-19 missile system with 20 R-39 (SS-N-20) missiles. Since the missiles have reached end of their service lives, Project 941 submarines have been withdrawn from service. The only exception is the lead ship of the class, TK-208 Dmitry Donskoy, which has been refitted for tests of a new missile system, R-30 Bulava.

In 1996 Russia began construction of a strategic submarine of a new class, Project 955 (also known as Borey or Yuri Dolgorukiy).  Submarines of this class will carry 16 Bulava launchers. The lead ship, Yuri Dolgorukiy, joined the Northern Fleet in December 2013 and received its full complement of missiles in 2014. Subsequent Project 955 submarines are expected to join the Pacific Fleet. As of January 2015, three submarines had been accepted for service - Yuri Dolgorukiy, Alexander Nevskiy, and Vladimir Monomakh. Three more submarines are under construction - Knyaz Vladimir (laid down in July 2012), Knyaz Oleg (July 2014), and Generalissimus Suvorov (December 2014).

Sea-launched ballistic missiles

All currently deployed sea-launched ballistic missiles were developed at the Machine-Building Design Bureau (Miass, Chelyabinsk oblast). The design bureau is currently named the V. P. Makeyev State Missile Center.

R-29R (SS-N-18) missiles are deployed on Project 667BDR submarines. The system was accepted for service in 1979. The missile has two liquid-fuel stages and carries three warheads. The missiles were produced at the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant.

R-29RM (SS-N-23) missiles are deployed on Project 667BDRM submarines. The system was accepted for service in 1986. The missile has three liquid-fuel stages (the third stage also works as a bus) and carries four warheads. In 1999 Russia resumed production of these missiles, in a modification known as Sineva, to be deployed on Project 667BDRM submarines during overhaul. Launch tests of the Sineva missile were completed in June 2004 and it was accepted for service in July 2007. Another modification of R-29RM, known as Liner, could carry up to 10 warheads.

Russia is currently developing a new sea-launched ballistic missile, known as R-30 Bulava. Development of this missile is done at the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology. Flight tests of the missile began in September 2005. The new missile system will  be deployed on Project 955 submarines. Bulava was declared as carrying six warheads.