On 25 June 2021, at 22:50 MSK (19:50 UTC) crews of the Air and Space Forces conducted a successful launch of a Soyuz-2.1b launcher from the launch pad No. 43 of the launch complex No. 4 of the Plesetsk test site.

The satellite delivered into orbit, later designated Cosmos-2550, is the first spacecraft of the 14F139 Pion-NKS type. It is an "active" electronic reconnaissance and targeting spacecraft that will work as part of the 14K159 Liana naval reconnaissance system. The system also includes four "passive" satellites of the Lotos-S1 type (the most recent launch conducted in February 2021).

Cosmos-2550 received international designation 2021-056A and registered by NORAD as object 48865. It is deployed on a circular orbit with altitude of about 500 km.

According to a report quoting a source in the industry, the ministry of defense accepted the satellite for service in November 2022. It also considers ordering a second satellite of this type.